Как переводится how long

Present Perfect Continuous — правила и примеры

как переводится how long

В этой статье мы подробно изучим правила и примеры Present Perfect Continuous. Оно выражает длительное действие, которое только что завершилось или все еще продолжается. Также сравним Present Perfect Continuous с временами Present Perfect, Present Continuous и Past Continuous и разберемся, в каких случаях их употреблять.

Время Present Perfect Continuous на русский язык переводят как «настоящее совершенное длительное время». Не пугайтесь такого длинного названия. На самом деле разобраться с ним не так сложно, особенно, если вы уже хорошо освоили Present Perfect. Давайте начнем с образования Present Perfect Continuous, а затем перейдем к правилам и примерам.

Образование Present Perfect Continuous

Present Perfect Continuous образуется по следующей схеме:

Примеры утвердительных предложений в Present Perfect Continuous:

It has been raining all day long. I’m sick and tired of this weather. — Дождь идет весь день. Меня достала эта погода.
Sorry, I am late. I’ve been looking for a parking spot. — Извините, я опоздал. Я искал место для парковки.
She’s been talking to her boss since morning. I believe she is in trouble. — Она разговаривает с боссом с самого утра. Похоже, у нее проблемы.

Примеры отрицательных предложений в Present Perfect Continuous:

Sorry, I haven’t been listening to you. Now I’m all ears. — Извини, я тебя не слушала. Теперь я вся во внимании.
He hasn’t been working all weekend. He is lying. — Он не работал все выходные. Он врет.
Things have not been going really well lately. — Дела идут не очень хорошо в последнее время.

Примеры вопросительных предложений в Present Perfect Continuous:

Your clothes are all dirty. What have you been doing? — Твоя одежда вся грязная. Что ты делал?
How long have you been dating him? — Как долго ты с ним встречаешься?
Has he been watching series all day? — Он что, смотрел сериалы весь день?

Употребление Present Perfect Continuous

А сейчас поговорим о том, когда используется Present Perfect Continuous.

  1. Употребляем Present Perfect Continuous для действия, которое началось в прошлом и продолжается в настоящем. В таких предложениях мы акцентируем внимание на продолжительности действия. Обратите внимание на слова-маркеры Present Perfect Continuous: for (на протяжении, в течение), since (с какого-то времени), all morning/day/week (все утро / весь день / всю неделю), lately (в последнее время), recently (недавно, на днях).

    I have been looking through these articles for two hours but I still can’t find the information I need. — Я просматриваю эти статьи уже два часа, но все еще не могу найти информацию, которая мне нужна.

    We have been planning our trip since January. — Мы планируем нашу поездку с января.
    Try it! Julia has been baking this cake all moring.

    — Попробуй! Джулия пекла этот торт все утро.

  2. Следующий случай использования Present Perfect Continuous — действие началось в прошлом, длилось какое-то время и только что или совсем недавно завершилось. В этом случае делаем акцент на результате действия, который связан с настоящим временем. Но длительность действия также является обязательным условием использования Present Perfect Continuous.

    My feet are killing me because I have been walking in these terrible shoes. — У меня ужасно болят ноги, потому что я ходила в этих ужасных туфлях.
    I’ve been waiting for you in the rain! Why are you always late? — Я ждала тебя под дождем! Почему ты постоянно опаздываешь?

  3. Present Perfect Continuous используется для построения вопросов с how long (как долго, сколько). Такие предложения на русский язык часто переводятся в настоящем времени.

    How long have you been standing here? You didn’t have to wait for me. — Как долго ты здесь стоишь? Ты мог и не ждать меня.
    How long has she been sleeping? It’s 11 a.m.

    already! — Сколько она спит? Уже 11 часов!
    How long have they been dating? Will he propose to her or not? — Сколько они уже встречаются? Он сделает ей предложение или нет?

Present Perfect Continuous и Present Perfect

Поговорим о разнице между Present Perfect Continuous и Present Perfect. Сравните примеры и правила в таблице ниже.

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Present Perfect ContinuousPresent Perfect
Акцент на продолжительности действия. Неважно, закончилось действие или нет.I have been cleaning the kitchen all morning. I am very tired. — Я убирала кухню все утро. Я очень устала.Mary is very studious. She has been doing homework all evening. — Мэри очень прилежная. Она делает домашнее задание весь вечер. Акцент на результате действия. Действие выполнено.I have cleaned the kitchen. It is as good as new now. — Я убрала кухню. Теперь она как новенькая.She can go out because she has done her homework. — Она может идти гулять, потому что сделала домашнее задание.
Действие все еще продолжается или только что закончилось. Можно задать вопрос how long? (как долго?).I have been watching the last season of “Game of Thrones” since yesterday. — Я смотрю последний сезон «Игры престолов» со вчерашнего дня.They have been hitchhiking for seven years. — Они путешествуют автостопом уже семь лет. Действие завершено. Можно задать вопросы how much? (сколько?), how many times? (сколько раз?), how often? (как часто?).I have watched the last episode of “Game of Thrones” three times. — Я посмотрел последнюю серию «Игры престолов» три раза.I have never hitchhiked in my life. — Я никогда в жизни не путешествовал автостопом.

Существуют глаголы, которые не употребляются в длительной форме (Continuous). Так как эти глаголы описывают не само действие, а состояние объекта, они получили название stative verbs (глаголы состояния). Примеров таких глаголов немало. Чтобы их было легче запомнить, можно выделить следующие группы:

  • эмоции, чувства: love (любить), hate (ненавидеть), want (хотеть), (нравится);
  • физическое восприятия: see (видеть), hear (слышать), seem (казаться);
  • мыслительные процессы: know (знать), believe (полагать), remember (помнить);
  • владение, обладание: have (иметь), own (владеть), belong (принадлежать);
  • другие: be (быть), contain (содержать в себе), need (нуждаться) и т. д.

Если действие началось в прошлом, но еще не закончилось, с глаголами состояния обычно употребляем Present Perfect, а не Present Perfect Continuous.

How long have you owned this house? — Как давно ты владеешь этим домом?
I’ve known him since we were kids. — Я знаю его с детства.

Некоторые из вышеупомянутых глаголов все же можно употреблять в Present Perfect Continuous, но их значения будут другие. Например: think (размышлять), see (встречаться, видеться), mean (намереваться, хотеть), have как часть выражения (to have a shower — принимать душ, to have breakfast — завтракать). Сравните:

She has been thinking about your offer all night long. — Она думала о твоем предложении всю ночь.
I have thought, until now, that you were an honest man. Now I see that you are a cheater. — До этого момента я думал, что ты честный человек. Теперь я вижу, что ты жулик.

I have been having strange dreams for about three weeks. — Мне снятся странные сны уже где-то три месяца.
I have had such a problem before. — У меня была такая проблема раньше.

We have been seeing each other since Christmas. We are in love. — Мы встречаемся с Рождества. Мы влюблены.
I have just seen Derek at the bar. — Я только что видела Дерека у бара.

В английском языке есть ряд глаголов, значения которых связаны с процессом. Их называют длительными (durable verbs): live (жить), work (работать), teach (обучать, преподавать), study (учить, изучать), feel (чувствовать) и другие. Эти глаголы можно употреблять как в Present Perfect Continuous, так и в Present Perfect, когда мы говорим о действиях, которые начались в прошлом и продолжаются в настоящем.

Aboriginals have been living here for thousands of years. / Aboriginals have lived here for thousands of years. — Аборигены живут здесь уже тысячи лет.
I have been feeling really depressed lately. / I have felt really depressed lately. — Я чувствую себя очень подавленно в последнее время.
She has been studying

Источник: https://englex.ru/present-perfect-continuous-tense/

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The Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Упражнения

как переводится how long

  1.  I/to read/this book/for three days.
  2.  We/to play volleyball/ for twenty minutes.
  3.  She/to clean/the flat/for more than an hour.
  4.  Peter/to swim/for half an hour.
  5.  Anna/to speak/on the phone/for an hour now.
  6. You/to wait/for a bus/for ten minutes only.
  7.  Nelly and Mary/to do the shopping/since early morning.
  8.  It/to snow/since last night.
  9.  Jack and his friend/ to ride bikes/for three hours now.
  10. The teacher/to explain/ a grammar rule/since the beginning of the lesson.

Answers: 1. I have been reading this book for three days. 2. We have been playing volleyball for twenty minutes. 3. She has been cleaning the flat for more than an hour. 4.

Peter has been swimming for half an hour. 5. Anna has been speaking on the phone for an hour now. 6. You have been waiting for a bus for ten minutes only. 7. Nelly and Mary have been doing the shopping since early morning. 8. It has been snowing since last night. 9. Jack and his friend have been riding bikes for three hours now. 10.

The teacher has been explaining a grammar rule since the beginning of the lesson.

Exercise 2. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму

  1. Helen (to wash) the dishes for fifteen minutes.
  2.  My classmates (to write) a dictation since the beginning of the lesson.
  3. Sam (to drive) a car for five hours now.
  4.  I (to look) for information on the subject since last Friday.
  5.  Molly (to paint) this picture for three days now.
  6.  The tourists (to do) the sightseeing since nine o’clock.
  7.  You (to work) as a computer programmer for more than fifteen years.
  8.  The wind (to blow) since yesterday.
  9. My grandfather (to collect) coins since he was a boy.
  10.  Andy and Den (to discuss) the plans for their winter holidays for two hours now.

Answers: 1.has been washing; 2.have been writing; 3. has been driving; 4. have been looking; 5. has been painting; 6. have been doing; 7.

have been working; 8. has been blowing; 9. has been collecting; 10. have been discussing.

Exercise 3.  Сделайте предложения отрицательными

  1.  You have been writing a report since morning.
  2. We have been working in the garden for three hours.
  3.  I have been typing letters since ten o’clock.
  4. Tom has been running for twenty minutes.
  5.  A cat has been sitting in the tree for an hour.
  6.  Jane has been studying English for two years.
  7.  They have been building this house for more than a year.
  8.  My parents have been travelling for a week.
  9. I have been having a lesson for fifteen minutes now.
  10.  They have been walking since afternoon.

Answers: 1.You haven’t been writing a report since morning. 2. We haven’t been working in the garden for three hours. 3.

I haven’t been typing letters since ten o’clock. 4.Tom hasn’t been running for twenty minutes. 5.A cat hasn’t been sitting in the tree for an hour. 6. Jane hasn’t been studying English for two years. 7. They haven’t been building this house for more than a year. 8. My parents haven’t been travelling for a week. 9. I haven’t been having a lesson for fifteen minutes now. 10.

They haven’t been walking since afternoon.

Exercise 4. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму

  1. Kevin (to fish) since early morning.
  2. Kim (not to pack) her things for so long.
  3.  You (to iron) clothes all day.
  4.  Allan (not to wear) this jacket for three years.
  5. I (not to walk) a dog since four o’clock.
  6.  Monica and Sue (to paint) the walls of the house since ten o’clock in the morning.
  7.  Mr May (to read) this article for more than half an hour now.
  8.  It (not to rain) since afternoon.
  9.  My neighbours (to make) a noise since seven o’clock in the morning.
  10.  Brad (fo try) to catch a taxi for fifteen minutes now.

Answers: 1. has been fishing; 2.hasn’t been packing; 3. have been ironing; 4. hasn’t been wearing; 5. haven’t been walking; 6. have been painting; 7.has been reading; 8. hasn’t been raining; 9. have been making; 10.

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has been trying.

Exercise 5. Сделайте предложения  вопросительными

  1. He has been boating for four hours.
  2.  We have been skating since eleven o’clock.
  3.  Lucy has been learning this poem for twenty minutes.
  4.  You have been writing this article since afternoon.
  5.  My parents have been working in the hospital for thirteen years.
  6.  The music has been playing for three hours.
  7.  We have been speaking since five o’clock.
  8.  Beth has been taking a bath for thirty-five minutes.
  9.  They have been preparing for the test for two days.
  10.  The baby has been crying for half an hour.

Answers: 1. Has he been boating for four hours? 2.Have we been skating since eleven o’clock? 3.

Has Lucy been learning this poem for twenty
minutes? 4. Have you been writing this article since afternoon? 5.Have my parents been working in the hospital for thirteen years? 6. Has the music been playing for three hours? 7. Have we been speaking since five o’clock? 8. Has Beth been taking a bath for thirty-five minutes? 9.

Have they been preparing for the test for two days? 10. Has the baby been crying for half an hour?

Exercise 6. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму

  1.   Jenny (to wait) for her flight in the airport since twelve o’clock? — No, she . She (to wait) for her flight for forty minutes now.
  2. Can I talk with you? — Sorry, I’m busy. I (to look) for one important paper for more than twenty minutes now and can’t find it.
  3.  Is Ed at home? — No, he is in the gym. He (to train) since five o’clock.
  4.   your mother (to work) as a manager for ten years? — No, she . She (to work) as a manager for eighteen years.
  5.  Is Philip fixing the washing-machine? — Yes, he (to fix) it since nine o’clock.
  6. Alison and Cindy (not to paint) the walls in the room for two hours. They (to work) since morning.
  7.  The Petersons (to build) their house for three years now.
  8.  Is mother in the kitchen? — Yes, she (to cook) since four o’clock.
  9. You look tired! — Well, I (to gather) strawberries for more than two hours.
  10.  Where is Ben? — He is in his room. He (to listen) to music since afternoon.

Answers: 1. Has Jenny been waiting for her flight in the airport since twelve o’clock? — No, she hasn’t.

She has been waiting for her flight for forty minutes now. 2. Can I talk with you? — Sorry, I’m busy. I have been looking for one important paper for more than twenty minutes now and can’t find it. 3. Is Ed at home? — No, he is in the gym. He has been training since five o’clock. 4.Has your mother been working as a manager for ten years? — No, she hasn’t. She has been working as a manager for eighteen years.

5. Is Philip fixing the washing-machine? — Yes, he has been fixing it since nine o’clock. 6. Alison and Cindy haven’t been painting the walls in the room for two hours. They have been working since morning. 7. The Petersons have been building their house for three years now. 8. Is mother in the kitchen? — Yes, she has been cooking since four o’clock. 9.

You look tired! — Well, I have been gathering strawberries for more than two hours. 10. Where is Ben? — He is in his room. He has been listening to music since afternoon.

Составляя специальные вопросы в настоящем совершенном длительном времени, слова распологают в таком порядке: : вопросительное слово (Wh-word), вспомогательный глагол have/has, подлежащее, глагол been и глагол-сказуемое (с окончанием -ing).
Wh-word + have + l/you/we/they + been + Ving

Wh-word + has + he/she/it/ + been + Ving?

Например:What have you been doing? How long has he been working?Вопросы к подлежащему образуются только с помощью вспомогательного глагола  has:

Who has been crying?

Источник: https://engfairy.com/the-present-perfect-continuous-tense-uprazhneniya/

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